An RCA TK60 shoots the control room of American Forces Vietnam, or AFVN, television in Saigon in 1972 for a segment in the evening news cast. Did you know the navy had TK60s on their aircraft carriers to show the flight deck to the controllers on the bridge?
In a 1982 NBC Game Of The Week broadcast from Fenway Park, the truck lost power (at 2:46) and only one of the 6 RCA TK760 cameras was able to recover to finish the game. A cameraman named Mario Cialro saved the day and had the whole NBC network all to himself. There happened to be a crew in the truck shooting a pre game segment with a battery powered camera and VTR and caught the legendary Harry Coyle calling the “shot”. Coyle pioneered the look of baseball on television and directed 36 World Series over a 42 year career. Thanks to David Crosthwait for the clip.
Here’s Gene Kelly in the dress rehearsal at NBC Burbank. At the link below you can see another clip from the show that gives you a good look at one of the huge studios and some pretty fancy crane camera work at the start. The cameras were RCA TK41s.
This is a photo from 1950 taken at WCAU’s Chestnut Street studio. That’s a pretty interesting General Electric pedestal under that RCA TK30. Although ‘Cinderella Weekend’ was produced locally in each market, it was actually a package show that stations paid a fee for. Monday-Friday homemakers answered questions from a panel for a daily winner, and on Friday, one of the daily winners would win the weekend sightseeing trip to NYC.
Perhaps the only major 50s personality missing in this photo is Hugh Downs who was at WBKB when this was made, but joined the NBC staff the next year. 1 is the staff of ‘Kukla, Fran and Ollie’. 2 is the staff of ‘Stud’s Place’ with Studs Terkel. 3 is the staff of ‘Garroway At Large’. 4 is handyman Walt Durbhab of ‘Walt’s Workshop’. 5 is Clint Youle, the Casual Weatherman. 6 is Cliff Norton, Garroway’s funnyman. 7 is Dave Garroway, and 8 is Jules Hernuveaux, NBC’s Chicago Director of Network Operations.
A few days ago, I posted a photo of Lewis with a Dumont Electronicam and told some of the story of his work in developing video assist for movies. Here is the whole story from an article I wrote a while back complete with some interesting photos with details on the picture pages.
In a way, he really is ‘The Nutty Professor’. After the Martin & Lewis breakup, Jerry began to get more involved in movie making and television and his first TV directing experience was on an episode of ‘Ben Casey, MD’ that he also appered in. In 1960, he wrote directed and starred in ‘The Bell Boy’ and that’s where the video assist process started. Jerry had console built to house a couple of audio tape recorders, a turntable and a Sony video tape recorder. Along the same lines as the Dumont Electrocam from the 50’s, Lewis mounted a video camera on the film camera and the rest, as they say is history.
Although she had played a few small roles on film and starred on Broadway as ‘Gigi’, ‘Roman Holiday’ was her first starring role. The film was set in Italy and done in 1953. Hepburn played Princess Ann, an incognito European princess who, escaping the reins of royalty, falls in love with an American newsman played by Gregory Peck. While producers initially wanted Elizabeth Taylor for the role, director William Wyler was so impressed by Hepburn’s screen test that he cast her in the lead. Wyler later commented, “She had everything I was looking for: charm, innocence, and talent. She also was very funny. She was absolutely enchanting”…below is the screen test.
Originally, the film was to have had only Gregory Peck’s name above its title, with “Introducing Audrey Hepburn” beneath in smaller font. However, Peck suggested to Wyler that he elevate her to equal billing so that her name appeared before the title and in type as large as his: “You’ve got to change that because she’ll be a big star and I’ll look like a big jerk.
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Here’s Carol Burnett with CBS Newsman Lee Cowan. In the clip linked above, you’ll see his 8 minute visit with her that ran on ‘Sunday Morning’. Nice piece with some interesting shots along the way. Enjoy!
Here’s Clayton Moore visiting ABC affiliate WATE in Knoxville during a charity telethon. The show’s original run was from September 1949 till September 1957 on ABC. It starred Jay Silverheals as Tonoto and Moore as The Lone Ranger, BUT…from 52 till 53, Moore was replaced by John Heart over a salary dispute. Unless any of us saw and remember the first run of the show, we would never have known this because when ABC, CBS and NBC aired the show in reruns, they never aired the season with John Heart. Thanks to James Finch for the photo.
The Landmark Achievements Of “The Colgate Comedy Hour”
There are three major landmarks in television history that occurred on this show which ran from September of 1950 through December of 1955. The first landmark is “the wheel format” which basically inserted rotating hosts on a weekly basis. The network also used the wheel format on ‘The All Star Review and it’s successor ‘The Four Star Review’ which later became ‘The Martha Raye Show’ as she had been the most popular rotating host on both prior programs. NBC had an idea that would really “pop” using this format, which brings us to landmark number two…bi-coastal origination.
During the 1950-51 season, AT&T put into regular service a coast-to-coast coaxial/microwave interconnection service which allowed live telecasts from across the nation. Martin & Lewis and Abbott & Costello (seen below) anchored the West Coast, broadcasting from the El Capitan theater in Hollywood (also known as The Hollywood Palace), while Eddie Cantor anchored from New York. This gave NBC a substantial edge over the competing ‘Toast Of The Town’ with Ed Sullivan, since top-grade talent from motion pictures could also do network TV on the West Coast Colgate Comedy Hour, while Sullivan had to work with whomever happened to be in New York at the time that a particular episode aired.
Here is landmark event number three: The episode broadcast on November 22, 1953, hosted by Donald O’Connor, was the first ever, coast to coast color television broadcast in the NTSC color system. There were few other color broadcasts in the 1953-1954 season, and all of them were transmitted by NBC. The series was also used earlier in the season to demonstrate the final form of RCA’s “Compatible” color system to members of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Two sets were in the room: an experimental color model and a standard black-and-white unit. Eddie Cantor hosted the program with guests including Frank Sinatra, Eddie Fisher, and Brian Donlevy.
In the very last days in operation as a network, Dumont introduced the Electronicam in 1955. By late ’54 the handwriting was on the wall…in February of 1955, Dumont executives realized the company could not continue as a television network. It was decided to shut down network operations and operate WABD and WTTG as independents. On April 1, 1955, most of DuMont’s entertainment programs were dropped.
April 15, 1955, nine years to the day after opening their fist studio at Wanamaker’s Department Store, the company introduced the 35 and 16mm versions of the Dumont Electronicam. The hope was that this new video and film production tool would help save the company, and after all, the end result was much better than the kinescope.
Jerry Lewis saw an Electrocam in New York in 1956 and never forgot that. ’56 was the year he and Dean Martin split, and Lewis did a few solo movies for director Hal Wallis but became involved in the production as well. By ’60, Lewis was on his own and began writing, directing and starring in his own movies with Paramount as a partner. All the while the Electronicam process was on his mind and by the early 60s, he had begun the process of developing a true video assist technology. By ’66, he had “Jerry’s Noisy Toy” which included video and audio tape capacity and RCA vidicon cameras interlinked with Mitchell BNC cameras.
As America’s involvement in the war in Afghanistan winds down, I think back to another long running war – Vietnam. It is well known Vietnam was the first war brought into people’s homes by television. But television proved useful going the opposite direction as well.
Here in a rehearsal hall, Gary Moore goes over the show with a young Carol just behind him. She joined the show in 1959 and stayed till ’62, but after this video clip, we’ll get into some of the things that lead up to this.
After spending her first year in New York working as a hat-check girl and failing to land acting jobs, Burnett along with other girls living at The Rehearsal Club, a boarding house for women seriously pursuing an acting career, put on The Rehearsal Club Revue on March 3, 1955. They mailed invitations to agents, who showed up along with stars like Celeste Holm and Marlene Dietrich, and this opened doors for several of the girls including Carol who was cast in a minor role on The Paul Winchell and Jerry Mahoney Show in 1955. She played the girlfriend of a ventriloquist’s dummy on the popular children’s program. This role led to her starring role opposite Buddy Hackett in the short-lived sitcom ‘Stanley’ from 1956 to 1957.
After ‘Stanley’, Burnett found herself unemployed for a short time. She eventually bounced back a few months later as a highly popular performer on the New York circuit of cabarets and night clubs, most notably for a hit parody number called “I Made a Fool of Myself Over John Foster Dulles” (Dulles was Secretary of State at the time). In 1957, Burnett performed this number on both ‘The Tonight Show’, hosted by Jack Paar, and ‘The Ed Sullivan Show’. Burnett also worked as a regular on one of television’s earliest game shows, ‘Pantomime Quiz’, during this time. In 1957, just as Burnett was achieving her first small successes, her mother died.
Carol’s first true taste of success came with her appearance on Broadway in the 1959 musical ‘Once Upon a Mattress’, for which she was nominated for a Tony Award. The same year, she became a regular player on The Garry Moore Show, a job that lasted until 1962. She won an Emmy Award that year for her “Outstanding Performance in a Variety or Musical Program or Series” on the show. Burnett portrayed a number of characters, most memorably the put-upon cleaning woman who would later become her signature alter-ego. With her success on the Moore show, Burnett finally rose to headliner status and appeared in the 1962 special ‘Julie and Carol at Carnegie Hall’, co-starring her friend Julie Andrews. The show was produced by Bob Banner, directed by Joe Hamilton, and written by Mike Nichols and Ken Welch. ‘Julie and Carol at Carnegie Hall’ won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Program Achievement in the Field of Music, and Burnett won an Emmy for her performance. Burnett also guest-starred on a number of shows during this time, including The Twilight Zone episode “Cavender is Coming”.
In 1964, Burnett became good friends with Jim Nabors, who was enjoying great success with his series Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C.. As a result of their close friendship, Burnett played a recurring role on Nabors’s show as a tough corporal, later gunnery sergeant. Nabors would later be her first guest every season on her variety show.
In 1966, Lucille Ball became a friend and mentor to Burnett. After having guested on Burnett’s highly successful CBS-TV special ‘Carol + 2’ and having the younger performer reciprocate by appearing on The Lucy Show, Ball reportedly offered Burnett her own sitcom called ‘Here’s Agnes’, to be produced by Desilu Productions. Burnett declined the offer, not wanting to commit herself to a weekly series. The two remained close friends until Ball’s death in 1989. Ball sent flowers every year on her birthday. When Burnett awoke on the day of her 56th birthday in 1989, she discovered via the morning news that Ball had died. Later that afternoon, flowers arrived at Burnett’s house with a note reading, “Happy Birthday, Kid. Love, Lucy.
Here are some interesting details of the show’s history…the pilot for this series aired as a two-part episode of ‘JAG’ in the spring of 2003. Don Johnson (Miami Vice) was offered the part of Gibbs, but turned it down. The sound heard at the beginning and end of each Act, when the scene goes to black and white is Donald P. Bellisario making that noise into a microphone. He wanted a unique way of bookending each act and took a microphone and went into a studio and made that sound into the microphone. Bellisario named the character Leroy Jethro after his family. His brother’s name is Leroy and his father’s middle name is Jethro. Sean Murray (Special Agent Timothy McGee) is the step son of Bellisario, and his sister on the show is in fact his step sister in real life. Pauley Perrette, who plays Abby, actually graduated with a degree in Forensics in college, and then moved to New York to get her masters, and it was there that she got in to acting. before coming to NCIS. Producers have said that most of the personality and interests displayed by Abby come from Perrette just playing herself.
I Never Knew Till Yesterday…Beatles First US Concert: Part 1
Yesterday, I got an email from Steve White and learned something I had never known about The Beatles. This is a fascinating story told in two parts, so be sure to read part two also.
It seems that in February of 1964, Steve was working for Tele-Tape Productions in New York and was in Washington DC to video tape the first ever Beatles concert in the US. The concert was on Monday night, February 10, the night after their first appearance on ‘The Ed Sullivan Show’ (more details in Part 2 below). Steve’s headset was tethered to one of four Marconi Mark IV cameras there that night to record the show. His position was to assist with the floor camera that shot up and down the left and right sides of the stage, which was actually a boxing ring without the ropes.
This photo of the floor camera shooting the band was one of two dozen never before seen shots from that night that sold for over $300,000 in 2011. In 2012, the 35 minute video was to have become part of a feature length movie called ‘The Beatles…The Lost Concert’. Unfortunately copyright issues came into play and it was never released. I don’t know who paid for the Tele-Tape shoot or what the tape was to be used for. I don’t think it was ever broadcast, but suspect Capitol Records owned the master. Only after the note from Steve was I able to find video of that historic night and you can see part of it in Part 2.
I Never Knew Till Yesterday…Beatles First US Concert: Part 2
Till yesterday, I never knew The Beatles first US concert in Washington DC was televised (see part 1 above), but it was and below is a full description to the events of that night and the story that lead up to this night. Notice in the video, the local radio DJs introducing the band all have on Beatle wigs and there are no roadies to help Ringo turn the drum riser around. These were truly the early days of rock and roll!
On February 10, 1964, Ringo Starr stepped off the train in Washington’s Union Station and said, “It’s great to be here in New York!” He was joking, pretending to be disoriented by his whirlwind life. He was in Washington to play the first Beatles concert in the United States, scheduled for that night at the Washington Coliseum (1140 Third St. NE). How the Beatles made Washington their first public stateside performance is a story of fortuitous happenings that combined to make the nation’s capital one of the epicenters of Beatlemania.
By late 1963, the Beatles were already stars in the U.K. but Capitol Records—which owned the U.S. rights to the Beatles’ recordings—had no faith that a British act could do well in the United States. Consequently the company didn’t release the U.K. hits “Please Please Me” or “She Loves You,” instead, licensing those off to the much smaller labels Vee-Jay and Swan. They went nowhere.
But when a Silver Spring, Maryland girl saw a short segment about the Beatles on “The CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite” in December, 1963, it started a chain of events that forced Capitol’s hand. The girl, Marsha Albert, wrote to her favorite Washington DJ, Carroll James of WWDC-AM, asking him why he wasn’t playing songs by this hot British band. Carroll had also seen the CBS report, and arranged to get a copy of “I Want to Hold Your Hand” from a British Airways flight attendant. He called up Albert and invited her to the station to introduce the song, and on the afternoon of December 17, Albert was on the air on WWDC-AM saying, “Ladies and Gentlemen, for the first time on the air in the United States, here are the Beatles singing ‘I Want to Hold Your Hand.’ ”
The station was deluged with calls. Carroll James taped copies of the single for a DJ pal in Chicago, who did the same for a friend in St. Louis. Capitol Records demanded they stop playing the single, but soon realized the Beatles were out of the bag, and rushed its own release of the “I Want to Hold Your Hand” single, three weeks ahead of schedule.
It was soon the number one song in America, a fact that got the Beatles booked on “The Ed Sullivan Show.” They flew into New York on February 7, 1964, facing a mob at the airport. They played “The Ed Sullivan Show” on February 9, to a studio audience of 728 people but a television audience of nearly 74 million, almost half the entire U.S. population at the time. They had booked the Washington show and then two dates at Carnegie Hall at the last minute to help defray travel costs, and were preparing to fly to Washington on Tuesday February 10, but a snowstorm steered them to the train. Manager Brian Epstein hired a sleeper car and got it attached to the morning train to Washington. At Union Station, a crowd of 2,000 screaming fans greeted the band, and they met with DJ James and the Silver Spring girl Albert, whose letter had helped spark the madness.
Limousines took the foursome and their entourage to the Shoreham Hotel (they’d booked the entire 7th floor), and John Lennon scribbled the night’s planned set list on hotel stationary. At the Coliseum, more than 8,000 people, mostly young women and girls, were screaming for the Beatles, all throughout performances by the Caravelles, Tommy Roe and the Chiffons. They’d paid $2, $3 and $4 for their tickets. Inside the hall—built for sporting events—the Beatles performed before their largest crowd to date, on a stage that was a converted boxing ring (without the ropes). They ran through a 35-minute set consisting of: “Roll Over, Beethoven,” “From Me to You,” “I Saw Her Standing There,” “This Boy,” “All My Loving,” “I Wanna Be Your Man,” “Please Please Me,” “Till There Was You,” “She Loves You,” “I Want to Hold Your Hand,” “Twist and Shout” and “Long Tall Sally.”
By most reports, the audience could hardly hear a thing by the band, which was drowned out by the screams (they were hindered by a ludicrously inadequate sound system as well). They were rushed back to the Shoreham after the show to change clothes before heading to the British Embassy for a reception. It was well past midnight when they arrived, and the Beatles made mischief with the Ambassador’s attempts to greet them. “I’m not John,” said John. “I’m Charlie. That’s John.” Pointing to George Harrison. They signed hundreds of autographs and Ringo Starr lost a lock of hair to a woman with nail scissors. They headed back to New York the next morning by train, to play Carnegie Hall and to appear again on “The Ed Sullivan Show.” They left behind a snow-covered city, whose inhabitants had helped start a global wave of cultural change. They couldn’t know that, however.
The camera crew in Studio 33 at Television City have their hands full trying to follow Gene as he races around the studio at the opening of an episode of ‘Match Game ’78’. The Norelco PC70s are in use and it looks like the center camera ramp is still there, but now, doesn’t go all the way back…just half way. By the way, Gene was only 61 at the time, not 75. Thanks to Juan Leal for the clip.
Ethyl and Lucy rehearse for a scene in the kitchen. In front of the sound boom, Director of Photography Karl Freund is making adjustments with the crew. The show goes before the motion picture cameras in much the same way it would as a live show in a television studio. As Freund pointed out, the almost continuous camera-on-dolly technique employed is adapted from standard TV camera operations for live shows.
The show is photographed on 35mm film with three Mitchell BNC cameras mounted on dollies, as shown in the photos. All three cameras shoot the action simultaneously. The camera in the center makes all the long shots with a 40mm wide-angle lens. The cameras at either side record the action in close-ups, using 3-inch and 4-inch lenses. In the beginning, the company used a cue-track method, which permitted remote control operation of the cameras individually for long shot, medium shot, and close-up, as the script demanded. This system was soon abandoned, however, in favor of regular film production methods, with the tacks from the three cameras edited on the Moviola, etc. The result is greater speed in the photography of scenes and better results in the final editing.
Cueing of camera operators, grips operating the dollies, and of the gaffer handling the light dimmers is still a major function in the production of the weekly films. When the show is being photographed, the script girl in a booth overlooking the stage is in direct contact with the key technicians at all times via two-way intercom phones. Although each man previously is briefed on the operation and in many cases has floor marks to guide him, the script girl insures against any possibility of error by her timely cues. Impressive is the speed with which the crews move on to the next setup and start shooting again. A special check made of this operation showed that elapsed time between camera setups averaged a minute-and-a-half.
A major factor making such speed possible is the lighting arrangement worked out for the production. Since invariably the players are in action over almost the entire set, the light intensity must be uniform over the entire area at all times. There are no light changes, other than those made by dimming. All set illumination, therefore, is from overhead. there are no floor lamps and the only illumination from a lower level comes from the portable fill lights, which are mounted just above the matt box on each camera.
Director of photography Karl Freund has his back to us as an assistant pulls a tape on Desi Arnaz in the living room set of ‘I Love Lucy’. The action in each weekly episode takes place on three basic sets erected more or less permanently on Stage 2 at General Services Studio. The sets, which represent the Ricardo apartment consisted of a kitchen, a living room, and a third room which is dressed as required. The sets adjoin one another and are, in fact “intercommunicating,” so that action, such as a player entering the living room from the kitchen door, becomes a natural thing; and when the continuity of such action is to be picked up by the cameras, they are merely moved before the adjoining set and filming is resumed in a matter of seconds. Beyond this three-set arrangement is still another set representing the nightclub where Ricky Ricardo is employed as entertainer…this was to the right of the kitchen set. The orchestra was assembled for every show, whether or not it is to be used in the picture filmed that evening.
Before any other local station, WBAP-TV (now KXAS or NBC5) in Dallas/Ft. Worth optimistically placed an order in the fall of 1949 for RCA color television equipment, to be delivered when ready. On April 9, 1954, WBAP-TV became the only Texas television station broadcasting color programs form the NBC television network. On May 15, WBAP staged a three-hour studio color telecast. General David Sarnoff, chairman of the board of Radio Corporation of America (RCA), and station owner Amon Carter, Sr., threw the switch to inaugurate the first local live colorcast in Texas.
The first color tape recorder in Texas was in installed by WBAP-TV in October, 1959. The new equipment had the ability to record a 90-minute segment of programming and play it back in less than five minutes.
In 1931 famous California broadcast entrepreneur Don Lee was granted a license to begin experimental television broadcasts with station W6XAO in Los Angeles. The station later became KTSL, KNXT and is currently KCBS-TV. The ridge above the Hollywood sign, where Lee established his transmitter, is still known as “Mount Lee”. In the photo, this appears to be a “home made” Iconoscope camera. Don Lee’s name appears on the rear under the viewfinder. It was not common for stations to build their own cameras, but the schematics were available and a few very good engineers at a few of the early stations did this.
Durante’s Signature Sign Off…Who Was Mrs. Calabash?
The most revered part of Jimmy’s show was the finale when he would slowly fade away walking through a succession of spotlights, pausing in each one to either look down or look back at the audience (see the video clip below). He did this after bidding farewell, commenting, “And good night, Mrs. Calabash–wherever you are!” Who was Mrs. Calabash? No one but Jimmy ever knew. This led to all sorts of speculation. The most accepted came to be that it was a pet name for Jimmy’s first wife, Jeanne Olsen. Another was that it referred to the place where Jimmy and Jeanne lived, Calabasas, California. Perhaps the line refers to the owner of a restaurant in Calabash, North Carolina, where Jimmy and his troupe stopped once to eat. He was so taken by the food, the service, and the chitchat that when he left he turned and said,”Good night, Mrs. Calabash,” not knowing the lady’s name. Only Jimmy knew. His reply when asked: “Ha-cha-cha-chaaaaaaa!”
There is a great enlargeable graph in this story that shows, team by team, the amount they were paid for TV and Radio broadcast rights for the season. Interestingly, WGN did all the Cubs & Sox games in color and WLW-T did a lot of color too. The figures will amaze you. Thanks to Kevin Vahey for this very interesting story.
Finally! Thanks to 51 year TV veteran Bill Freiberg of KTRK in Houston TX, who started with Dumont equipment, we finally know some of secrets that had been lost for so long on these cameras. Below is his letter to me and a photo of a Dumont 124B in use. Enjoy!
“First let me tell you how much I am enjoying your website. I am in my 51st year in this business and cut my teeth on DuMont studio gear starting in 1962. The station was originally a UHF DuMont affiliate, but went dark, then when the freeze was over, the CH 13 people bought the facility. We had DuMont cameras, switchers, a color Multiscanner, sync generators, consoles, the whole megilla.
The DuMont TA-124 was a 3” Image Orthicon camera, it was later branded and sold by G.E, but was still made in Passaic, it was the same camera as the 124-E. The camera had the I/O at the lower
right position (looking from the rear), as opposed to the RCA, which had the I/O in the top center.
The connectors were unique to DuMont, there were A, B, C, D, and E cables, differing mostly in the number of coaxes within. The camera was fed by a small box called the “aux” unit, which contained the equipment for cable equalization, blanking and timing, and voltage regulation to compensate for differing cable lengths. Yes, the 124s could and did work on booms, perambulators, pedestals, tripods, anywhere an RCA could. There was a finite length limit to the aux to camera, but it was usually installed near the camera for setup convenience.
At KTRK, we had them at the camera control position on the
2nd floor. We built a lot of our own cables there. Even built “orbiters” to slowly move the image on the face of the I/O to minimize image burn in. RCA used an optical wedge which turned, we used coils around the front part of the tube. Wound them on a coffee can, as I remember.
The focus handle screwed to the lower right of the camera body, and moved the I/O back and forth, along with the deflection coils. We always had a set of the little flex cables, about 2″ long. They made up for the angle at which the handle presented to the camera body. The last 3″ of the handle turned in order to focus. The TK 40/41 used a similar system.
Iris setting was manual, but DuMont at one time had a kit which had gears on each lens. A handle at the rear was pushed in and rotated to set the iris for the lens in use. We just left ours at 5.6 in the studio and 8 or 10 outdoors. We never had iris control at the CCU.
We had a show we did once a year for which we had to pull all
the stuff out of the step can/milk truck and tote up four flights of stairs. We called it the annual KTRK hernia festival.”
Thanks to Bill for the note. Anyone that would like to share the same kind of information on the various cameras and video tape machines they have worked with, please send it to me!
British journalist David Frost, who was best known for his interview with former President Richard Nixon, died on Saturday, his family said. The veteran broadcaster was 74. During his 50-year career not only were there plenty of heavyweight interviews – Frost sat down with seven US presidents and six British prime ministers – but there was also a string of satirical news shows, celebrity interviews, and some light entertainment.
“The Week That Was,” presented by Frost when it launched in 1962 on the BBC, was a groundbreaking show that mocked the British establishment. It was broadcast on Saturday evenings and its sketches lampooning politicians, churchmen and celebrities drew huge audiences. Production style also broke the established rules with, for example, technical equipment in vision.
TW3 as it was known was followed by “The Frost Report”, another satirical show broadcast in Britain. Comedian and actor John Cleese, at the start of his career, was a writer together with others who then formed Monty Python’s Flying Circus.
“Through the Keyhole” was a tour of celebrity homes, and “Breakfast with Frost” a Sunday morning show where the presenter sat down with a range of guests from politics and show business. The long list of those who agreed to be interviewed by Frost throughout his career includes Nelson Mandela, Paul McCartney, Orson Welles, Muhammad Ali and Prince Charles.